There are following exceptions for Defamation under Sec. 499 IPC
1. Imputation of truth which public good requires be making or publishing.
2. Public conduct of public servant.
3. Conduct of any person touching any public question.
4. Publication of reports of proceedings of courts.
5. Merits of the case decided in court or conduct of witnesses and others concerned.
6. Merits of Public performance.
7. Censure passed in good faith by person having lawful authority over another.
8. Accusation preferred in good faith to authorized person.
9. Imputation made in good faith by person for protection of his or other’s interests.
ABoth Libel and Slander are used to term the act of defamation i.e., to speak ill about another person in public such that it harms the reputation of that other person. Libel means defaming one by writing ill about that person and publishing it i.e., written defamation while Slander means defaming one by speaking ill about that person i.e., oral defamation.
ACriminal defamation is the act of offending or defaming a person by committing a crime or offence. ... Civil Defamation: Civil defamation involves no criminal offence, but on account of this kind of defamation, you could sue the person to get a legal compensation for your defamation.
There are four essentials for the tort of Defamation.
a. There must be a defamatory statement.
b. The defamatory statement must be understood by right thinking or reasonable minded persons as referring to the plaintiff.
c. There must be publication of the defamatory statement, that is to say, it must be communicated to some person other than the plaintiff himself.
d. In case of slander either there must be proof of special damages or the slander must come within the serious classes of cases in which it is actionable per se.